John Armstrong

In Plato’s Laws, the Athenian Stranger says that the universe’s parts, which include human beings, come to be and “strive” for the sake of the universe as a whole. This implies two kinds of holism: cosmic rational holism, the view that the ultimate justification of a part’s activity is its contribution to the good of the universe as a whole; and cosmic motivational holism, the view that the universe’s parts are motivated to contribute to the good of the universe as a whole.

David Shoemaker

In introducing the reactive attitudes “of people directly involved in transactions with each other,” P.F. Strawson lists “gratitude, resentment, forgiveness, love, and hurt feelings." Because he decided to illustrate his larger points about responsibility by focusing on resentment (via an investigation into its standard excusing and exempting conditions), nearly everyone writing about responsibility in Strawson’s wake has done so as well. But what of the remaining reactive attitudes?


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