Fall

John Armstrong

In Plato’s Laws, the Athenian Stranger says that the universe’s parts, which include human beings, come to be and “strive” for the sake of the universe as a whole. This implies two kinds of holism: cosmic rational holism, the view that the ultimate justification of a part’s activity is its contribution to the good of the universe as a whole; and cosmic motivational holism, the view that the universe’s parts are motivated to contribute to the good of the universe as a whole.

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